What is Leadership?
- A leader is one who knows the way, shows the way and goes the way. Leadership is sub-function of directing in management. Leadership is the process of influencing followers in order to achieve short term, middle term and long term goals of an organization.
- Leadership is the ability of an individual or a group of individuals to influence and guide followers or other members of an organization.
Determinants of Leadership
Hay groups of management research about the determinants of leadership and they developed 75 components that determine the leadership. Among 76 determinants, 5 of the main determinants affects 90% of the leadership and rest 70 determinants affect only 10% of the leadership.
Those 5 determinants are
Styles of Leadership
1) Autocratic Style
Autocratic style यस्तो style हो जहाँ
- One way communication
- Planning, Controlling र सबै Management functions हरु Centralized हुन्छन।
- Strong chain of command भएको संस्थाहरुमा suitable हुन्छ।
2) Paternalistic Style
Paternalistic style यस्तो style हो जहाँ
- Followers लाई सबै अधिकार दिएजस्तो गर्ने तर निर्णय आफै लिने।
- Two Way Communication गरे जस्तो गर्ने
- Sole Trading Company हरुमा suitable हुन्छ।
3) Democratic Style
- Two-way communication
- Majority is true
- Joint Venture Company हरुमा suitable हुन्छ।
- Role of leader has less power
- Coordinator को काम मात्र गर्छ।
- Each member have veto power
- Research, Innovative Nature Company हरुमा suitable हुन्छ।
Approaches of Leadership
- Great man approach
- Traits approach
- Behavior approach
- Participatory approach
- Situational approach
- Contingent approach
- Transactional approach
- Transformational approach
- Visionary approach
- Examplary leader
- Ethical leader
- Legal leader
- Strategical leader
- Emotional intelligent
1) Great man approach: leaders are born not made.
2) Traits Approach: Leaders are born not made. But to be a great leader, inborn capacity is not enough. A leader should have the following essential qualities-
- Physically attractive
- Honesty and integrity
3) Behavior approach and Participatory Approach:
Similarities – Balance between the output of the organization to the employee
Differences – Behavior (Individual, micromanagement, Person-centric), Participatory (mass-centric, macro-management)
4) Situational Approach and Contingent Approach:
Similarities – Both approach talk about none of the leadership style remains the same and appropriate all time. Leadership should be changed as time changes.
Differences – Situational (micro-management मा आको परिवर्तन अनुसार नेतृत्वमा परिवर्तन गर्नु पर्छ ), Contingent (long-run मा आएको परिवर्तन संगै नेनेतृत्व शैली मा परवर्तन गर्ने )
5) Transactional Approach (संक्रमणकालिन): managerial leader, realistic, नियममा छैन त्यै भएर यो काम गर्दिन भन्ने प्रव्रित्ति बोकेका
6) Transformational Approach: Change leader, स्रोत साधनको उत्पादनमा जोड दिने, परिवर्तन चाहने, आशावादी, नियम छैन भने नियम बनाएर भएपनि काम गर्नु पर्छ भन्ने सोच बोकेको
7)Visionary: leadership with long term benefit
8)Level 5: Leadership in such a way that follower should be one step ahead than the leader.
9)Exemplary: Be an icon for everyone
10) Emotional intelligent: leadership with deep knowledge of the particulat matter.
11) Ethical: नैतिकता भन्दा माथि आएर पनि कहिले काही leadership गर्नु पर्छ।
Problems of leadership in Nepal
In Nepal, leadership has got the following problems.
- Less participatory
- Lack of visionary leadership
- Lack of Emotional intelligent leadership
- Lack of strategical leadership
- Lack of leadership development package
- Exercise of positional leadership – अनुभव नभई पढेर पास गरेको भरमा पद दिनु
- Lack of performance based-growth
- Weakness in communication practice.
- Lack of open door policy